准备工作

本节首要:

  • 多表连接查询
  • 相符条件连接查询
  • 子查询

  

 

有备无患干活:希图两张表,部门表(department卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)、职员和工人表(employee卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎

图片 1

create table department(
id int,
name varchar(20) 
);

create table employee(
id int primary key auto_increment,
name varchar(20),
sex enum('male','female') not null default 'male',
age int,
dep_id int
);

#插入数据
insert into department values
(200,'技术'),
(201,'人力资源'),
(202,'销售'),
(203,'运营');

insert into employee(name,sex,age,dep_id) values
('egon','male',18,200),
('alex','female',48,201),
('wupeiqi','male',38,201),
('yuanhao','female',28,202),
('nvshen','male',18,200),
('xiaomage','female',18,204)
;

# 查看表结构和数据
mysql> desc department;
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field | Type        | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| id    | int(11)     | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| name  | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
2 rows in set (0.19 sec)

mysql> desc employee;
+--------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field  | Type                  | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+--------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id     | int(11)               | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| name   | varchar(20)           | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| sex    | enum('male','female') | NO   |     | male    |                |
| age    | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| dep_id | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+--------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
5 rows in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> select * from department;
+------+--------------+
| id   | name         |
+------+--------------+
|  200 | 技术         |
|  201 | 人力资源     |
|  202 | 销售         |
|  203 | 运营         |
+------+--------------+
4 rows in set (0.02 sec)

mysql> select * from employee;
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
| id | name     | sex    | age  | dep_id |
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

图片 2

ps:观看两张表,发掘department表中id=203部门在employee中从不对症用药的职工,开采employee中id=6的工作者在department表中并未有对应提到。

 

 

生机勃勃、多表连接查询

两张表的备选专业已成功,比方今后自己要询问的职工音讯以至该职工所在的部门。从该题中,大家见到既要查工作者又要查该职员和工人的机构,肯定要将两张表进行连接查询,多表连接查询。

器重:外链接语法

语法:

SELECT 字段列表
    FROM 表1 INNER|LEFT|RIGHT JOIN 表2
    ON 表1.字段 = 表2.字段;

 

(1卡塔尔国先看率先种情景交叉连接:不适用别的相称原则。生成笛Carl积(关于笛Carl积的含义,大家百度电动补脑卡塔尔。

图片 3

mysql> select * from employee,department;
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
| id | name     | sex    | age  | dep_id | id   | name         |
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |  202 | 销售         |
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |  203 | 运营         |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |  200 | 技术         |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |  202 | 销售         |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |  203 | 运营         |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |  200 | 技术         |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |  202 | 销售         |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |  203 | 运营         |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |  200 | 技术         |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |  202 | 销售         |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |  203 | 运营         |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |  202 | 销售         |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |  203 | 运营         |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |  200 | 技术         |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |  202 | 销售         |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |  203 | 运营         |

图片 4

 

(2卡塔尔内接连:只连接相称的行

 

图片 5

#找两张表共有的部分,相当于利用条件从笛卡尔积结果中筛选出了匹配的结果
#department没有204这个部门,因而employee表中关于204这条员工信息没有匹配出来
mysql> select employee.id,employee.name,employee.age,employee.sex,department.name from employee inner join department on employee.dep_id=department.id;
+----+---------+------+--------+--------------+
| id | name    | age  | sex    | name         |
+----+---------+------+--------+--------------+
|  1 | egon    |   18 | male   | 技术         |
|  2 | alex    |   48 | female | 人力资源     |
|  3 | wupeiqi |   38 | male   | 人力资源     |
|  4 | yuanhao |   28 | female | 销售         |
|  5 | nvshen  |   18 | male   | 技术         |
+----+---------+------+--------+--------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

#上述sql等同于
mysql> select employee.id,employee.name,employee.age,employee.sex,department.name from employee,department where employee.dep_id=department.id;

图片 6

 

(3卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎外链接之左连接:优先呈现左表全体记录

图片 7

#以左表为准,即找出所有员工信息,当然包括没有部门的员工
#本质就是:在内连接的基础上增加左边有,右边没有的结果
mysql> select employee.id,employee.name,department.name as depart_name from employee left join department on employee.dep_id=department.id;
+----+----------+--------------+
| id | name     | depart_name  |
+----+----------+--------------+
|  1 | egon     | 技术         |
|  5 | nvshen   | 技术         |
|  2 | alex     | 人力资源     |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | 人力资源     |
|  4 | yuanhao  | 销售         |
|  6 | xiaomage | NULL         |
+----+----------+--------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

图片 8

(4卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar) 外链接之右连接:优先展现右表全体笔录

图片 9

#以右表为准,即找出所有部门信息,包括没有员工的部门
#本质就是:在内连接的基础上增加右边有,左边没有的结果
mysql> select employee.id,employee.name,department.name as depart_name from employee right join department on employee.dep_id=department.id;
+------+---------+--------------+
| id   | name    | depart_name  |
+------+---------+--------------+
|    1 | egon    | 技术         |
|    2 | alex    | 人力资源     |
|    3 | wupeiqi | 人力资源     |
|    4 | yuanhao | 销售         |
|    5 | nvshen  | 技术         |
| NULL | NULL    | 运营         |
+------+---------+--------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

图片 10

 

(5卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar) 全外连接:突显左右五个表全部笔录(明白)

图片 11

#外连接:在内连接的基础上增加左边有右边没有的和右边有左边没有的结果
#注意:mysql不支持全外连接 full JOIN
#强调:mysql可以使用此种方式间接实现全外连接
语法:select * from employee left join department on employee.dep_id = department.id 
       union all
      select * from employee right join department on employee.dep_id = department.id;

 mysql> select * from employee left join department on employee.dep_id = department.id
          union
        select * from employee right join department on employee.dep_id = department.id
           ;
+------+----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
| id   | name     | sex    | age  | dep_id | id   | name         |
+------+----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
|    1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
|    5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |  200 | 技术         |
|    2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|    3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |  201 | 人力资源     |
|    4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |  202 | 销售         |
|    6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 | NULL | NULL         |
| NULL | NULL     | NULL   | NULL |   NULL |  203 | 运营         |
+------+----------+--------+------+--------+------+--------------+
7 rows in set (0.01 sec)

#注意 union与union all的区别:union会去掉相同的纪录

图片 12

 

 

二、符合条件连接查询

以身作则1:以内连接的章程查询employee和department表,而且employee表中的age字段值必得大于25,即寻觅年龄大于二十六周岁的工作者以致员工所在的机关

select employee.name,department.name from employee inner join department
  on employee.dep_id = department.id
  where age > 25;

 

以身作则2:以内连接的办法查询employee和department表,並且以age字段的升序方式体现。

select employee.id,employee.name,employee.age,department.name from employee,department
    where employee.dep_id = department.id
    and age > 25
    order by age asc;

 

三、子查询

#1:子查询是将一个查询语句嵌套在另一个查询语句中。
#2:内层查询语句的查询结果,可以为外层查询语句提供查询条件。
#3:子查询中可以包含:IN、NOT IN、ANY、ALL、EXISTS 和 NOT EXISTS等关键字
#4:还可以包含比较运算符:= 、 !=、> 、<等

 

例子:

(1卡塔 尔(英语:State of Qatar)带in关键字的子查询

图片 13

#查询平均年龄在25岁以上的部门名
select id,name from department
    where id in 
        (select dep_id from employee group by dep_id having avg(age) > 25);
# 查看技术部员工姓名
select name from employee
    where dep_id in 
        (select id from department where name='技术');
#查看不足1人的部门名
select name from department
    where id not in 
        (select dep_id from employee group by dep_id);

图片 14

 

(2卡塔 尔(阿拉伯语:قطر‎带比较运算符的子查询

图片 15

#比较运算符:=、!=、>、>=、<、<=、<>
#查询大于所有人平均年龄的员工名与年龄
mysql> select name,age from employee where age > (select avg(age) from employee);
+---------+------+
| name    | age  |
+---------+------+
| alex    |   48 |
| wupeiqi |   38 |
+---------+------+

#查询大于部门内平均年龄的员工名、年龄
思路:
      (1)先对员工表(employee)中的人员分组(group by),查询出dep_id以及平均年龄。
       (2)将查出的结果作为临时表,再对根据临时表的dep_id和employee的dep_id作为筛选条件将employee表和临时表进行内连接。
       (3)最后再将employee员工的年龄是大于平均年龄的员工名字和年龄筛选。



mysql> select t1.name,t1.age from employee as t1
             inner join
            (select dep_id,avg(age) as avg_age from employee group by dep_id) as t2
            on t1.dep_id = t2.dep_id
            where t1.age > t2.avg_age;
+------+------+
| name | age  |
+------+------+
| alex |   48 |

图片 16

 

(3)带EXISTS关键字的子查询

图片 17

#EXISTS关字键字表示存在。在使用EXISTS关键字时,内层查询语句不返回查询的记录。而是返回一个真假值。True或False
#当返回True时,外层查询语句将进行查询;当返回值为False时,外层查询语句不进行查询
#department表中存在dept_id=203,Ture
mysql> select * from employee  where exists (select id from department where id=200);
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
| id | name     | sex    | age  | dep_id |
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
|  1 | egon     | male   |   18 |    200 |
|  2 | alex     | female |   48 |    201 |
|  3 | wupeiqi  | male   |   38 |    201 |
|  4 | yuanhao  | female |   28 |    202 |
|  5 | nvshen   | male   |   18 |    200 |
|  6 | xiaomage | female |   18 |    204 |
+----+----------+--------+------+--------+
#department表中存在dept_id=205,False
mysql> select * from employee  where exists (select id from department where id=204);
Empty set (0.00 sec)

图片 18

小练习:

查询各种单位最新入职的那位职员和工人

图片 19

#创建表
create table employee(
id int not null unique auto_increment,
name varchar(20) not null,
sex enum('male','female') not null default 'male', #大部分是男的
age int(3) unsigned not null default 28,
hire_date date not null,
post varchar(50),
post_comment varchar(100),
salary double(15,2),
office int, #一个部门一个屋子
depart_id int
);


#查看表结构
mysql> desc employee;
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field        | Type                  | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id           | int(11)               | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| name         | varchar(20)           | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| sex          | enum('male','female') | NO   |     | male    |                |
| age          | int(3) unsigned       | NO   |     | 28      |                |
| hire_date    | date                  | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| post         | varchar(50)           | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| post_comment | varchar(100)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| salary       | double(15,2)          | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| office       | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| depart_id    | int(11)               | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+--------------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

#插入记录
#三个部门:教学,销售,运营
insert into employee(name,sex,age,hire_date,post,salary,office,depart_id) values
('egon','male',18,'20170301','老男孩驻沙河办事处外交大使',7300.33,401,1), #以下是教学部
('alex','male',78,'20150302','teacher',1000000.31,401,1),
('wupeiqi','male',81,'20130305','teacher',8300,401,1),
('yuanhao','male',73,'20140701','teacher',3500,401,1),
('liwenzhou','male',28,'20121101','teacher',2100,401,1),
('jingliyang','female',18,'20110211','teacher',9000,401,1),
('jinxin','male',18,'19000301','teacher',30000,401,1),
('成龙','male',48,'20101111','teacher',10000,401,1),

('歪歪','female',48,'20150311','sale',3000.13,402,2),#以下是销售部门
('丫丫','female',38,'20101101','sale',2000.35,402,2),
('丁丁','female',18,'20110312','sale',1000.37,402,2),
('星星','female',18,'20160513','sale',3000.29,402,2),
('格格','female',28,'20170127','sale',4000.33,402,2),

('张野','male',28,'20160311','operation',10000.13,403,3), #以下是运营部门
('程咬金','male',18,'19970312','operation',20000,403,3),
('程咬银','female',18,'20130311','operation',19000,403,3),
('程咬铜','male',18,'20150411','operation',18000,403,3),
('程咬铁','female',18,'20140512','operation',17000,403,3)
;

图片 20

图片 21图片 22

select * from employee as t1
inner join
(select post,max(hire_date) as new_date from employee group by post) as t2
on t1.post=t2.post
where t1.hire_date=t2.new_date;

小演习答案

 

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